52GHz and 55GHz bands are used for Point to Point (P2P) Microwave Radio Links
Sources of Data and Graphics
All contents (C) OFCOM and taken from:
OfW48 UK Frequency Allocations for Fixed (Point-to-Point) Wireless Services and Scanning Telemetry This document shows the current bands managed by Ofcom that are available for fixed terrestrial (point to point) links and scanning telemetry in the UK.
The Radio Equipment and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Directive
99/5/EC (R&TTED) has been implemented in ‘The Radio Equipment and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Regulations 2000, Statutory
Instrument (SI) 730. In accordance with Articles 4.1 and 7.2 of the R&TTED
• IR2000: The UK Interface Requirement 2000 contains the requirements for the licensing and use of fixed (point-to-point) wireless services in the UK.
• IR2037: The UK Interface Requirement 2037 applies for scanning telemetry services.
• IR2078: The UK Interface Requirement 2078 applies for the 60 GHz band
Notes specific to the frequency charts
The first column describes each available frequency band, represented by a diagram (not to scale). The frequency band limits are listed below the diagram; frequencies below 10 GHz are represented in MHz, while those above 10 GHz are in GHz. The width of each guard band is shown above the diagram, and is always specified in MHz.
The channel arrangements in some bands are staggered, so that the width and position of the guard band vary for different channel spacings. In these cases, a table underneath gives details of the guard bands for different spacings (with all frequencies in MHz).
The first column also includes the title of the relevant international recommendations for each band, produced by the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications (CEPT) or the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). CEPT recommendations are available at https://www.cept.org/ecc/ and ITU Recommendations at https://www.itu.int.
The final column contains the channel spacing for duplex operation in each frequency band except for bands above 60 GHz. Details of standard systems assigned in the UK are shown in the relevant technical frequency assignment criteria.
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1024QAM Microwave Links for High Capacity Wireless Transmission
High Capacity Microwave Links from leading vendors use 1024QAM modulation to achieve high capacity, spectral density and efficiency without sacrificing reliability. This technology sets a new benchmark for microwave transmission capacity for operators including 4G / LTE Backhaul links for mobile operators as well as last-mile links, backbone and other applications.
High Capacity Links require High Order QAM modulation
Leading long-haul microwave equipment vendors are now using dependable long-distance transmissions using 1024 QAM. Relative to the industry-standard 256 QAM, this represents a 25% increase in capacity (and up to double the capacity of legacy SDH links), with all other factors the same. Compared to older 4QAM modulation the increase to 1024QAM is five-fold. Operators of long-haul microwave links will certainly enjoy the boost to their capacity with 1024 QAM, especially when these upgrades are relatively painless and generally require only a minor and quick swap of equipment.
Adaptive Coding and Modulation (ACM)
Leading microwave equipment vendors are able to keep their long-haul transmission links operational even in transient fade and noisy conditions. The enabling technology is ACM: Adaptive Coding and Modulation. Microwave links with ACM technology automatically sense the quality of the transmission link and can automatically decrease the modulation technique in case of degraded signal quality due to interference or other microwave propagation problems such as weather. So, if a microwave transmission is operating at maximum capacity using 1024QAM and suddenly encounters interference or high rainfall, a system such as the CableFree microwave system automatically steps down the modulation to lower levels until the transmission network, although at lower capacity now, maintains the ultra high level of link reliability and availability. As the temporary weather effects disappear, the microwave system automatically re-applies more efficient higher-order modulation techniques to regain full capacity.
Overcoming Tradeoffs due to High Order QAM Modulation
With increasing modulation the receiver sensitivity is greatly reduced, and generally transmit power has to be reduced due to linearity constraints in the transmitter. For fixed modulation speeds the result is either increase of antenna size or reduced distances, which may prevent an operator upgrading to higher capacity. The use of ACM allows use of 1024QAM whilst avoiding sacrifice of distance or antenna sizes, by graceful step-down of modulation to lower rates during rare periods of high rainfall.
Use along with other bandwidth-enhancing technologies such as XPIC
1024QAM modulation is fully compatible with other methods to increase capacity such as XPIC (Cross Polar Interference Cancellation). An advanced microwave modem featuring 1024QAM and XPIC can greatly increase capacity. XPIC alone offers double the capacity compared to a single polarised non-XPIC solution.
1024QAM Microwave Summary
These latest advancements in advanced microwave modulation offer network operators an easy and inexpensive upgrade path to higher capacities to meet demand. Advanced modulation technology of 1024QAM is fully shipping and available today and offers a very cost-effective way to boost capacity in long-haul microwave applications.
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Rain fade refers primarily to the absorption of a microwave radio frequency (RF) signal by atmospheric rain, snow or ice, and losses which are especially prevalent at frequencies above 11 GHz. It also refers to the degradation of a signal caused by the electromagnetic interference of the leading edge of a storm front. Rain fade can be caused by precipitation at the uplink or downlink location. However, it does not need to be raining at a location for it to be affected by rain fade, as the signal may pass through precipitation many miles away, especially if the satellite dish has a low look angle. From 5 to 20 percent of rain fade or satellite signal attenuation may also be caused by rain, snow or ice on the uplink or downlink antenna reflector, radome or feed horn. Rain fade is not limited to satellite uplinks or downlinks, it also can affect terrestrial point to point microwave links (those on the earth’s surface).
Possible ways to overcome the effects of rain fade are site diversity, uplink power control, variable rate encoding, receiving antennas larger (i.e. higher gain) than the required size for normal weather conditions, and hydrophobic coatings.
Two models are generally used for Rain modelling: Crane and ITU. The ITU model is generally preferred by microwave planners. A global map of Rain distribution according to the ITU model is shown below:
Used in conjunction with appropriate planning tools, this data can be used to predict the expected Operational Availability (in %) of a microwave link. Useful Operational Availability figures typically vary from 99.9% (“three nines”) to 99.999% (“five nines”), and are a function of the overall link budget including frequency band, antenna sizes, modulation, receiver sensitivity and other factors.
Another useful Rain Fade map is shown here, showing the 0.01% annual rainfall exceedance rate:
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To deliver a compelling quality of experience for subscribers, you must respond quickly to growing traffic demands. Modern Packet Microwave Mobile Backhaul products help you maximize the network’s performance by enabling rapid deployment of scalable backhaul to cell sites. Modern solutions include a portfolio of microwave products to address the backhaul needs of 2G, 3G, and LTE macro cells and 3G, LTE, and Wi-Fi® small cells. Radio spectrum is maximized using innovative techniques to maximize payload capacity to support the evolution to LTE and heterogeneous networks. Unique, common radio support for indoor and outdoor deployments enhances savings potential.
Packet Microwave Mobile Backhaul is a key component in a modern end-to-end mobile backhaul solution, which provides the flexibility, scale and operational simplicity to lower the total cost of ownership and simultaneously enhance the mobile service experience.
Rapidly support the optimal cell site location
Complete backhaul portfolio for macro cells and small cells
Support for all sites including both end and intermediate cell sites
Space and power efficiency
Full outdoor option to meet different microwave site space requirements
Achieve maximum spectral performance
Maximum bandwidth per band
Advanced quality of service levels supporting subscriber quality of experience
Scale the network cost effectively
Reliably bond radio channels to create larger microwave links
Any topology, any number of microwave link directions
Network awareness for both Carrier Ethernet and/or IP/MPLS networks
Be operationally efficient
Common radio for all cell sites
Evolutionary path from hybrid microwave to packet microwave at the touch of a button
Management beyond basic IP partner integration
Deployment, management, end-user benefits
Grow and retain subscribers by maximizing the mobile experience
Infrastructure support for increased subscriber bandwidth demands
Ability to react quickly to subscriber demand with optimally-located cell sites
Increased capacity that supports high bandwidth data applications
Packet Microwave Mobile Backhaul integrates a modern microwave portfolio with small cell optimized products to provide a complete backhaul offering for small cells and/or macro cells.
Read on in our following pages to find out more about technologies used in mobile backhaul applications
A popular choice for modern IP networks is the Full Outdoor Radio (FOR). Also called “Zero Footprint Radio”, “All Outdoor Radio”, “Outdoor IP Radio”.
In an FOR, the radio includes the modem, user network interface and all RF processing sections in a single unit. This is typically mounted on the customer rooftop or tower site mated to a high gain directional antenna.
Connectivity is typically Power over Ethernet (POE) and optional Fibre Optics (SFP) connection
The Full Outdoor Radio (FOR) architecture is popular with:
Internet Service providers (ISP)
Wireless ISPs (WISPs)
Full Outdoor Microwave Radios offer up to 400(364) Mbps and 800(728) Mbps Full Duplex payload (1.6Gbps aggregate capacity) and higher up to 3Gbps or more, 6-38GHz licensed frequency bands.
Using suitable antennas and sites, ultra-long-distance links exceeding 100km can be achieved. Distances depend on:
Required throughput (Mbps)
Desired Availability (%)
Antenna size (gain)
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Find out information on technology, deployment and applications for modern Digital Microwave Links
Microwave links are widely used for connectivity in modern digital IP networks. With capacities up to 6Gbps and beyond, a modern Microwave Link network can deliver bandwidth in a reliable, cost-effective and flexible manner – without need for disruption and delay caused by digging up streets and avoiding costly leased-line or leased fibre optic alternatives.
On this website you can find more information about radio link deployment and technology. Also we invite you to contact our experts with any questions by sending a message to us on our contact page.
Microwave links are used extensively in 4G & 5G LTE backhaul networks, 2G (GSM) and 3G (UMTS) mobile operators, wireless metropolitan area networks (Wi-MAN) and corporate networks where high performance, flexibility, speed of deployment and low operating costs are required. Key features of links include high spectral efficiency (256QAM, 1024QAM, 2048QAM and 4096QAM), Automatic Transmit Power Control (ATPC) and Adaptive Coding and Modulation (ACM).
Globally, MW radio links are used for around 60% of all mobile backhaul connections due to the compelling technical and commercial arguments in favour of MW radio compared to leased line and trenched fibre alternatives. Speed of deployment and flexibility – the ability to move sites or provision rapidly – are greatly in favour of MW radio over fibre and cabled alternatives.
A link typically features a radio unit and a parabolic antenna, which may vary in size from 30cm up to 4m diameter depending on required distance and capacity. The radio unit is generally either a “Full Outdoor”, “Split Mount” or “Full Indoor” design depending on operator preference, deployment, features and available indoor space for specific sites and installation.
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