OFCOM Channel Plans for 60GHz and 65GHz

OFCOM Channel Plans for 60GHz and 65GHz

Here is a chart showing channel plans for the UK

OFCOM - V-Band 60GHz 65GHz
OFCOM – V-Band 60GHz 65GHz

Uses & Applications

58GHz, 60GHz and 65GHz bands are used for Point to Point (P2P) Microwave Radio Links.  Also called V-band

Sources of Data and Graphics

All contents (C) OFCOM and taken from:

OfW48 UK Frequency Allocations for Fixed (Point-to-Point) Wireless Services and Scanning Telemetry This document shows the current bands managed by Ofcom that are available for fixed terrestrial (point to point) links and scanning telemetry in the UK.

Technical regulations

The Radio Equipment and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Directive
99/5/EC (R&TTED) has been implemented in ‘The Radio Equipment and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Regulations 2000, Statutory
Instrument (SI) 730. In accordance with Articles 4.1 and 7.2 of the R&TTED
the:
• IR2000: The UK Interface Requirement 2000 contains the requirements for the licensing and use of fixed (point-to-point) wireless services in the UK.
• IR2037: The UK Interface Requirement 2037 applies for scanning telemetry services.
• IR2078: The UK Interface Requirement 2078 applies for the 60 GHz band

Notes specific to the frequency charts

The first column describes each available frequency band, represented by a diagram (not to scale). The frequency band limits are listed below the diagram; frequencies below 10 GHz are represented in MHz, while those above 10 GHz are in GHz. The width of each guard band is shown above the diagram, and is always specified in MHz.
The channel arrangements in some bands are staggered, so that the width and position of the guard band vary for different channel spacings. In these cases, a table underneath gives details of the guard bands for different spacings (with all frequencies in MHz).
The first column also includes the title of the relevant international recommendations for each band, produced by the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications (CEPT) or the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). CEPT recommendations are available at http://www.cept.org/ecc/ and ITU Recommendations at http://www.itu.int.
The final column contains the channel spacing for duplex operation in each frequency band except for bands above 60 GHz. Details of standard systems assigned in the UK are shown in the relevant technical frequency assignment criteria.

For Further Information

For More Information on Microwave Planning, Please Contact Us

OFCOM Channel Plans for 31GHz and 38GHz

OFCOM Channel Plans for 31GHz and 38GHz

Here is a chart showing channel plans for the UK

OFCOM - 31GHz 38GHz
OFCOM – 31GHz 38GHz

Uses & Applications

31GHz and 38GHz bands are used for Point to Point (P2P) Microwave Radio Links

Sources of Data and Graphics

All contents (C) OFCOM and taken from:

OfW48 UK Frequency Allocations for Fixed (Point-to-Point) Wireless Services and Scanning Telemetry This document shows the current bands managed by Ofcom that are available for fixed terrestrial (point to point) links and scanning telemetry in the UK.

Technical regulations

The Radio Equipment and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Directive
99/5/EC (R&TTED) has been implemented in ‘The Radio Equipment and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Regulations 2000, Statutory
Instrument (SI) 730. In accordance with Articles 4.1 and 7.2 of the R&TTED
the:
• IR2000: The UK Interface Requirement 2000 contains the requirements for the licensing and use of fixed (point-to-point) wireless services in the UK.
• IR2037: The UK Interface Requirement 2037 applies for scanning telemetry services.
• IR2078: The UK Interface Requirement 2078 applies for the 60 GHz band

Notes specific to the frequency charts

The first column describes each available frequency band, represented by a diagram (not to scale). The frequency band limits are listed below the diagram; frequencies below 10 GHz are represented in MHz, while those above 10 GHz are in GHz. The width of each guard band is shown above the diagram, and is always specified in MHz.
The channel arrangements in some bands are staggered, so that the width and position of the guard band vary for different channel spacings. In these cases, a table underneath gives details of the guard bands for different spacings (with all frequencies in MHz).
The first column also includes the title of the relevant international recommendations for each band, produced by the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications (CEPT) or the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). CEPT recommendations are available at http://www.cept.org/ecc/ and ITU Recommendations at http://www.itu.int.
The final column contains the channel spacing for duplex operation in each frequency band except for bands above 60 GHz. Details of standard systems assigned in the UK are shown in the relevant technical frequency assignment criteria.

For Further Information

For More Information on Microwave Planning, Please Contact Us

OFCOM Channel Plans for 23GHz and 26GHz

OFCOM Channel Plans for 23GHz and 26GHz

Here is a chart showing channel plans for the UK

OFCOM - 23GHz 26GHz
OFCOM – 23GHz 26GHz

Uses & Applications

23GHz and 26GHz bands are used for Point to Point (P2P) Microwave Radio Links

Sources of Data and Graphics

All contents (C) OFCOM and taken from:

OfW48 UK Frequency Allocations for Fixed (Point-to-Point) Wireless Services and Scanning Telemetry This document shows the current bands managed by Ofcom that are available for fixed terrestrial (point to point) links and scanning telemetry in the UK.

Technical regulations

The Radio Equipment and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Directive
99/5/EC (R&TTED) has been implemented in ‘The Radio Equipment and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Regulations 2000, Statutory
Instrument (SI) 730. In accordance with Articles 4.1 and 7.2 of the R&TTED
the:
• IR2000: The UK Interface Requirement 2000 contains the requirements for the licensing and use of fixed (point-to-point) wireless services in the UK.
• IR2037: The UK Interface Requirement 2037 applies for scanning telemetry services.
• IR2078: The UK Interface Requirement 2078 applies for the 60 GHz band

Notes specific to the frequency charts

The first column describes each available frequency band, represented by a diagram (not to scale). The frequency band limits are listed below the diagram; frequencies below 10 GHz are represented in MHz, while those above 10 GHz are in GHz. The width of each guard band is shown above the diagram, and is always specified in MHz.
The channel arrangements in some bands are staggered, so that the width and position of the guard band vary for different channel spacings. In these cases, a table underneath gives details of the guard bands for different spacings (with all frequencies in MHz).
The first column also includes the title of the relevant international recommendations for each band, produced by the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications (CEPT) or the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). CEPT recommendations are available at http://www.cept.org/ecc/ and ITU Recommendations at http://www.itu.int.
The final column contains the channel spacing for duplex operation in each frequency band except for bands above 60 GHz. Details of standard systems assigned in the UK are shown in the relevant technical frequency assignment criteria.

For Further Information

For More Information on Microwave Planning, Please Contact Us

OFCOM Channel Plans for 18GHz

OFCOM Channel Plans for 18GHz

Here is a chart showing channel plans for the UK

OFCOM - 18GHz
OFCOM – 18GHz

Uses & Applications

18GHz bands are used for Point to Point (P2P) Microwave Radio Links

Sources of Data and Graphics

All contents (C) OFCOM and taken from:

OfW48 UK Frequency Allocations for Fixed (Point-to-Point) Wireless Services and Scanning Telemetry This document shows the current bands managed by Ofcom that are available for fixed terrestrial (point to point) links and scanning telemetry in the UK.

Technical regulations

The Radio Equipment and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Directive
99/5/EC (R&TTED) has been implemented in ‘The Radio Equipment and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Regulations 2000, Statutory
Instrument (SI) 730. In accordance with Articles 4.1 and 7.2 of the R&TTED
the:
• IR2000: The UK Interface Requirement 2000 contains the requirements for the licensing and use of fixed (point-to-point) wireless services in the UK.
• IR2037: The UK Interface Requirement 2037 applies for scanning telemetry services.
• IR2078: The UK Interface Requirement 2078 applies for the 60 GHz band

Notes specific to the frequency charts

The first column describes each available frequency band, represented by a diagram (not to scale). The frequency band limits are listed below the diagram; frequencies below 10 GHz are represented in MHz, while those above 10 GHz are in GHz. The width of each guard band is shown above the diagram, and is always specified in MHz.
The channel arrangements in some bands are staggered, so that the width and position of the guard band vary for different channel spacings. In these cases, a table underneath gives details of the guard bands for different spacings (with all frequencies in MHz).
The first column also includes the title of the relevant international recommendations for each band, produced by the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications (CEPT) or the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). CEPT recommendations are available at http://www.cept.org/ecc/ and ITU Recommendations at http://www.itu.int.
The final column contains the channel spacing for duplex operation in each frequency band except for bands above 60 GHz. Details of standard systems assigned in the UK are shown in the relevant technical frequency assignment criteria.

For Further Information

For More Information on Microwave Planning, Please Contact Us

OFCOM Channel Plans for 15GHz

OFCOM Channel Plans for 15GHz

Here is a chart showing channel plans for the UK

OFCOM - 15GHz
OFCOM – 15GHz

Uses & Applications

15GHz bands are used for Point to Point (P2P) Microwave Radio Links

Sources of Data and Graphics

All contents (C) OFCOM and taken from:

OfW48 UK Frequency Allocations for Fixed (Point-to-Point) Wireless Services and Scanning Telemetry This document shows the current bands managed by Ofcom that are available for fixed terrestrial (point to point) links and scanning telemetry in the UK.

Technical regulations

The Radio Equipment and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Directive
99/5/EC (R&TTED) has been implemented in ‘The Radio Equipment and Telecommunications Terminal Equipment Regulations 2000, Statutory
Instrument (SI) 730. In accordance with Articles 4.1 and 7.2 of the R&TTED
the:
• IR2000: The UK Interface Requirement 2000 contains the requirements for the licensing and use of fixed (point-to-point) wireless services in the UK.
• IR2037: The UK Interface Requirement 2037 applies for scanning telemetry services.
• IR2078: The UK Interface Requirement 2078 applies for the 60 GHz band

Notes specific to the frequency charts

The first column describes each available frequency band, represented by a diagram (not to scale). The frequency band limits are listed below the diagram; frequencies below 10 GHz are represented in MHz, while those above 10 GHz are in GHz. The width of each guard band is shown above the diagram, and is always specified in MHz.
The channel arrangements in some bands are staggered, so that the width and position of the guard band vary for different channel spacings. In these cases, a table underneath gives details of the guard bands for different spacings (with all frequencies in MHz).
The first column also includes the title of the relevant international recommendations for each band, produced by the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications (CEPT) or the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). CEPT recommendations are available at http://www.cept.org/ecc/ and ITU Recommendations at http://www.itu.int.
The final column contains the channel spacing for duplex operation in each frequency band except for bands above 60 GHz. Details of standard systems assigned in the UK are shown in the relevant technical frequency assignment criteria.

For Further Information

For More Information on Microwave Planning, Please Contact Us

Upgrading Dragonwave Microwave Links

Why consider upgrading Dragonwave Microwave Links ?

Many users consider upgrading existing Wireless Links such as Dragonwave to add greater capacity, or network coverage.  When considering a wireless vendor, factors generally include:

  • Vendor Track Record
  • Vendor Corporate Stability
  • Product Performance & Reliability
  • Product Support and Service
  • Manufacturing Leadtimes
  • Attractive Vendor Roadmap
  • Product Pricing including all required options

Generally, Microwave links are required to operate unattended for many years in challenging outdoor environments, and therefore reliable and stable products and vendors are paramount in the selection process.

Turbulence in Wireless Vendor Market Space

Amongst many ongoing changes in the market for Microwave Backhaul and Microwave Transmission vendors, there is ongoing consolidation, M&A, and other activities.  Recently, Packet Microwave Vendor Dragonwave recently underwent receivership and buy-out by Transform-X.

According to RCR Wireless article dated 3 August 2017,

Once a significant player in the microwave backhaul space, Ottawa, Canada-based company DragonWave has effectively shutdown, with the Ontario Superior Court of Justice placing a financial receiver in charge of the firm’s “property, assets and undertakings.”

With assets sold by the Receiver to Transform-X, and the Dragonwave business is no doubt being reshaped by the new owners of the business.

CableFree FOR3 Full Outdoor 1024QAM Microwave Link - Upgrade Dragonwave
Full Outdoor 1024QAM Microwave Link from CableFree

Upgrade to Latest Microwave Technology for Higher Capacities

Some vendors are fully shipping products today with 1024QAM, XPIC, and upgrades to 2048QAM, XPIC, 10Gbps MMW (Millimeter Wave), which are features above and beyond those achieved by many in the market today.  Customers can upgrade today and achieve higher capacity, longer range, reach and availability, at low Total Cost of Ownership compared to competing options.

Future Roadmap for Microwave Upgrades

In addition to today’s products, an impressive roadmap ensures access to higher speed links and features in future products also.   Consideration is worthwhile into:

  • Vendor roadmaps to higher capacity links with microwave up to 4Gbps or more per link existing today.
  • Upgrading to E-Band MMW for shorter links especially in congested city environments
  • Using E-band Millimeter Wave for short links to free-up existing microwave spectrum, relief of spectral congestion and re-using valuable microwave spectrum for longer links where required

For More Information on Microwave Upgrades:

For more information on upgrading your Microwave Radio Network, Please Contact Us

Microwave Links power ISP backbones in the Middle East

Implementing Microwave for High Speed Internet ISP Backbones in the Middle East

CableFree FOR3 Microwave links are being installed by ISPs in Iraq for Internet Backbone Connectivity. These links offer 880Mbps full duplex capacity with easy upgrade capability to 2+0 for 1.76Gbps full duplex, and are typically installed on towers or buildings for clear Line of Sight between network node locations.

CableFree FOR3 Microwave Installation in Middle East
CableFree FOR3 Microwave Installation in Middle East – pictures from Noor AKD

High Capacity Microwave

CableFree FOR3 can expand to 3.5Gbps and above for ultra high capacity links.  Microwave links are fast to install and can be deployed within hours, and distances up to 100km or more on suitable towers.
Microwave is low cost alternative to fibre optic and leased line connectivity and are highly reliable with uptimes of 99.999% or higher possible.
Pictures from Iraq from CableFree regional partner Noor AKD.

CableFree Products are used extensively in the Middle East region with installations in countries including Iraq, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey and several others

CableFree Microwave Link on a Tower in Iraq
CableFree Microwave Link on a Tower in Iraq near Baghdad

Microwave Product Data

Please visit our website for Product Data here:
http://www.cablefree.net/for3

Other CableFree products offer up to 10Gbps capacity using MMW technology.

1024QAM Microwave Links

1024QAM Microwave Links for High Capacity Wireless Transmission

High Capacity Microwave Links from leading vendors use 1024QAM modulation to achieve high capacity, spectral density and efficiency without sacrificing reliability.  This technology sets a new benchmark for microwave transmission capacity for operators including 4G / LTE Backhaul links for mobile operators as well as last-mile links, backbone and other applications.

High Capacity Links require High Order QAM modulation

CableFree Microwave 1024QAM increase from 4QAMLeading long-haul microwave equipment vendors are now using dependable long-distance transmissions using 1024 QAM. Relative to the industry-standard 256 QAM, this represents a 25% increase in capacity (and up to double the capacity of legacy SDH links), with all other factors the same. Compared to older 4QAM modulation the increase to 1024QAM is five-fold. Operators of long-haul microwave links will certainly enjoy the boost to their capacity with 1024 QAM, especially when these upgrades are relatively painless and generally require only a minor and quick swap of equipment.

Adaptive Coding and Modulation (ACM)

ACM with 1024QAM ModulationLeading microwave equipment vendors are able to keep their long-haul transmission links operational even in transient fade and noisy conditions. The enabling technology is ACM: Adaptive Coding and Modulation. Microwave links with ACM technology automatically sense the quality of the transmission link and can automatically decrease the modulation technique in case of degraded signal quality due to interference or other microwave propagation problems such as weather. So, if a microwave transmission is operating at maximum capacity using 1024QAM and suddenly encounters interference or high rainfall, a system such as the CableFree microwave system automatically steps down the modulation to lower levels until the transmission network, although at lower capacity now, maintains the ultra high level of link reliability and availability. As the temporary weather effects disappear, the microwave system automatically re-applies more efficient higher-order modulation techniques to regain full capacity.

Overcoming Tradeoffs due to High Order QAM Modulation

CableFree 1024QAM modulation tradeoffsWith increasing modulation the receiver sensitivity is greatly reduced, and generally transmit power has to be reduced due to linearity constraints in the transmitter.  For fixed modulation speeds the result is either increase of antenna size or reduced distances, which may prevent an operator upgrading to higher capacity.  The use of ACM allows use of 1024QAM whilst avoiding sacrifice of distance or antenna sizes, by graceful step-down of modulation to lower rates during rare periods of high rainfall.

Use along with other bandwidth-enhancing technologies such as XPIC

1024QAM modulation is fully compatible with other methods to increase capacity such as XPIC (Cross Polar Interference Cancellation).  An advanced microwave modem featuring 1024QAM and XPIC can greatly increase capacity.  XPIC alone offers double the capacity compared to a single polarised non-XPIC solution.

1024QAM Microwave Summary

These latest advancements in advanced microwave modulation offer network operators an easy and inexpensive upgrade path to higher capacities to meet demand. Advanced modulation technology of 1024QAM is fully shipping and available today and offers a very cost-effective way to boost capacity in long-haul microwave applications.

For Further Information

For More Information on High Capacity Microwave Solutions, Please Contact Us

 

ACM: Adaptive Coding and Modulation

Automatic Coding and Modulation (ACM)

Microwave Adaptive Coding and Modulation (ACM)
Microwave Adaptive Coding and Modulation (ACM)

Adaptive Coding and Modulation or Link adaptation is a term used in wireless communications to denote the matching of the modulation, coding and other signal and protocol parameters to the conditions on the radio link (e.g. the pathloss, the interference due to signals coming from other transmitters, the sensitivity of the receiver, the available transmitter power margin, etc.). In a digital Microwave Link ACM uses a rate adaptation algorithm that adapts the modulation and coding scheme (MCS) according to the quality of the radio channel, and thus the bit rate and robustness of data transmission. The process of link adaptation is a dynamic one and the signal and protocol parameters change as the radio link conditions change.

The Goal of ACM

ACM with 1024 QAM Modulation
ACM with 1024 QAM Modulation

The goal of Adaptive Modulation and Coding  is to improve the operational efficiency of Microwave links by increasing network capacity over the existing infrastructure – while reducing sensitivity to environmental interferences.
Adaptive Modulation means dynamically varying the modulation in an errorless manner in order to maximize the throughput under momentary propagation conditions. In other words, a system can operate at its maximum throughput under clear sky conditions, and decrease it
gradually under rain fade.  For example a link can change from 1024QAM down to QPSK to keep “link alive” without losing connection.  Prior to the development of Automatic Coding and Modulation, microwave designers had to design for “worst case” conditions to avoid link outage The benefits of using ACM include:

  • Longer link lengths (distance)
  • Using smaller antennas (saves on mast space, also often required in residential areas)
  • Higher Availability (link reliability)

Importance to Operators of ACM

CableFree Microwave Link using 30cm antenna benefits from ACM giving longer reach and higher availability
CableFree Microwave Link using 30cm antenna benefits from ACM giving longer reach and higher availability

Adaptive Coding and Modulation increases the capacity of microwave links without sacrificing distance or availability, and without requiring larger antennas.  The penalty – reduced capacity during heavy fade/rainfall – is usually considered an acceptable trade-off compared to the benefits, especially for IP networks where a variable capacity is generally considered acceptable, compared to legacy PDH (NxE1/T1) and SDH connections which are fixed capacity applications.  Conversely, ACM allows operators to minimise costs by using smaller antennas, meet higher availability targets (e.g. 99.999% availability) and customer SLA (service level agreement) and also fit within aesthetic and planning constraints in dense urban areas and regions of natural beauty where large antennas may be prohibited by planners or building owners.

For Further Information on ACM and Microwave Links

For more information on Microwave Links with ACM please Contact Us

Microwave Antenna Alignment

Alignment of Microwave Antennas for Digital Microwave Transmission Systems

This article contains generic instructions for alignment of Microwave antennas.  Specific products may have different features, in which case please refer to the documentation provided for those products:

CableFree Microwave Antenna Alignment
CableFree Microwave Antenna Alignment

Antenna Alignment for Microwave Links

This guide explains how to achieve the optimal antenna alignment of microwave antennas when used with modern digital microwave products.  Before attempting to do the alignment it is highly recommended that you read this guide in detail.  For specific commands please consult the manual of the product being installed

Step 1:  Preparation:

Mount the antenna on the tower according to the antenna installation instructions:  Ensure that the adjustment bolts move smoothly and the range of motion is sufficient for the expected angle of up and down (elevation) tilt. Ensure that the mount itself is attached securely and all safety precautions have been taken.

CableFree Microwave Antenna Alignment using DVM
CableFree Microwave Antenna Alignment using DVM

Step 2: Coarse Alignment:

Visually align the antenna with the far end.  The most common ways to do this are :

1)      If the visibility is good and the sun is in the correct position, have someone at the far end location reflect the sun with a mirror so the location is obvious.

2)      If visibility is poor, use GPS coordinates and a GPS compass to aim the antenna coarsely.

CableFree Microwave Antenna Alignment avoiding Sidelobes
CableFree Microwave Antenna Alignment avoiding Sidelobes

Step 3: Fine Alignment.

Before conducting fine alignment, the ODUs at both ends of the link must be attached properly to the antenna via the direct mount or remote mount (using Waveguide) and the far end ODU must be powered on and transmitting.  The ODU lightning surge suppressors and grounding provisions should be put in place as well before alignment. The local ODU must be powered on, but need not be transmitting.

Ensure that:

1)      Frequency of the far end transmitter matches the frequency of the local receiver.

2)      The TX output power is not set above the level of the license.

3)      ATPC is turned OFF on the far end.

4)      Alignment mode is ON for SP ODUs – Display on ODU and IDU will update at 5 times per second.

FINE ALIGNMENT PROCEDURE

1)      Adjust the azimuth over a 30 degree sweep by turning the adjustment bolt in increments of 1/10th turn to avoid missing the main lobe. When the highest signal has been found for azimuth, repeat for the elevation adjustment.

2)      Turn the local transmitter on to allow alignment at the far end.

3)      Move to the far end of the link and repeat step 1.

4)      Lock down the antenna so no further movement can occur.

5)      Install the antenna side struts supplied with the antenna.

6)      Verify the RSSI remains the same and is within 2-4 dB of the expected levels.

7)      Check the ODU connector seals.

8)      Turn alignment mode OFF

9)      The alignment is complete.