Welcome to Microwave-Link.com

Welcome to Microwave-Link.com

Find out information on technology, deployment and applications for modern Digital Microwave Links

Microwave Link
CableFree MW Link installed on a telecom tower

Microwave links are widely used for connectivity in modern digital IP networks. With capacities up to 6Gbps and beyond, a modern Microwave Link network can deliver bandwidth in a reliable, cost-effective and flexible manner – without need for disruption and delay caused by digging up streets and avoiding costly leased-line or leased fibre optic alternatives.

On this website you can find more information about radio link deployment and technology.  Also we invite you to contact our experts with any questions by sending a message to us on our contact page.

CableFree Microwave Links used for Mobile Backhaul
CableFree MW Radio Links used for Mobile Backhaul

Microwave links are used extensively in 4G & 5G LTE backhaul networks, 2G (GSM) and 3G (UMTS) mobile operators, wireless metropolitan area networks (Wi-MAN) and corporate networks where high performance, flexibility, speed of deployment and low operating costs are required.  Key features of links include high spectral efficiency (256QAM, 1024QAM, 2048QAM and 4096QAM), Automatic Transmit Power Control (ATPC) and Adaptive Coding and Modulation (ACM).

Globally, MW radio links are used for around 60% of all mobile backhaul connections due to the compelling technical and commercial arguments in favour of MW radio compared to leased line and trenched fibre alternatives.  Speed of deployment and flexibility – the ability to move sites or provision rapidly – are greatly in favour of MW radio over fibre and cabled alternatives.

A Full Outdoor Microwave Link installed for ISP in Iraq with 880Mbps Full Duplex Capacity
A Full Outdoor Microwave Link installed for ISP in Iraq with 880Mbps Full Duplex Capacity

A  link typically features a radio unit and a parabolic antenna, which may vary in size from 30cm up to 4m diameter depending on required distance and capacity.  The radio unit is generally either a “Full Outdoor”, “Split Mount” or “Full Indoor” design depending on operator preference, deployment, features and available indoor space for specific sites and installation.

CableFree FOR3 Full Outdoor 1024QAM Microwave Link
Full Outdoor 1024QAM MW Radio Link

For More information on MW Radio Links please Contact Us


High Capacity 11GHz Microwave Links with 1024QAM

CableFree FOR3 Microwave Links offer 881Mbps Full Duplex using 1024QAM, 112MHz Channels in 11GHz Microwave Band

The 11GHz version of CableFree FOR3 is ideal for Long Distance Backbone links for ISPs, Wireless ISPs (WISP), 4G/5G Operator for LTE Backhaul.  In this demonstration you can see CableFree FOR3 Microwave Test Results for operation in the 11GHz Band.  Our demonstration shows 881Mbps Full Duplex net throughput using 1024QAM modulation in 112MHz channels.This demonstration shows the clear advantages of a telecom carrier-grade FDD (Frequency Division Duplex) modem radio, which offers dedicated throughput and genuine Full Duplex capacity.  Many operators use these links to upgrade from existing 5GHz MIMO radios when the capacity available on 5GHz is saturated, or interference levels too high for reliable operation.

Link Aggregation for Higher Capacity

CableFree Microwave Links can be aggregated for higher capacity:  A 2+0 configuration of this radio in 11GHz would offer 1782Mbps Full Duplex net capacity.

Watch the FOR3 11GHz demo:

You can Watch our demo online here on Youtube:

Direct link to Youtube Video:https://youtu.be/50xKlGMCi7o

How the Demo was created:

The CableFree FOR3 radios were placed in a lab with suitable attenuator material between the waveguides to simulate long distance/range & attenuation.  A pair of routers were placed either end of the link, to generate and receive test packet streams.  These routers are capable of saturating a 1Gbps link therefore ideal for this test.  Due to the nature of Telecom Microwave FDD modems, the same full capacity is available at range where suitable antennas are used.  Longer range links require larger antennas to achieve high capacity.

Advantages of Licensed Spectrum

Licensed Spectrum ensures that links can operate without interference from other links within a region – the frequencies are allocated centrally by national government regulators.  The 11GHz band is normally regulated by national governments for long distance links.  Frequency allocations may be narrower than the 112MHz channels shown here.  The FOR3 radio can be configured to operate within whatever channel assignments are offered,with channel widths and centre frequencies set under software control.  Typical channel widths for lower frequency bands are 14MHz, 20MHz, 28Mhz, 30MHz, 40MHz, 56MHz.

About CableFree FOR3 Microwave

CableFree FOR3 Microwave Link

CableFree FOR3 Microwave platform is a high capacity, modern IP microwave radio link offering up to 891Mbps Full Duplex net throughput for diverse applications including 4G/LTE Backhaul, corporate networks, CCTV, Safe Cities and Wireless ISP backbones.
Unique in the wireless industry, CableFree FOR3 is available in both Licensed (2 to 42GHz) and Unlicensed (5GHz, 17GHz and 24GHz) bands, allowing for lower Total-Cost-of-Ownership.
Link to FOR3 Product Page

Zero-Footprint Solution

CableFree FOR3 is a Full Outdoor Radio for Zero-Footprint deployment, eliminating requirement for indoor locations or rack space. The radio is typically mounted on roof-top or tower location with antenna, with Power-over-Ethernet (PoE) connection to the radio using a single Cat5/e/6 cable. An optional SFP optical fibre interface is available for sites where long cable runs or electrical isolation to the radio is required.

Fully Shipping and Available

The CableFree FOR3 is fully shipping and available in all bands listed from 2 to 42GHz.

For Further Information

Out team has over 21 years experience with real-world deployment of wireless for mission-critical applications, with thousands of commercial deployments worldwide. For further information on Applications and Solutions for the range of CableFree wireless networking products please Contact Us


Upgrading Trango Microwave Links

Why consider upgrading Trango Microwave Links ?

Many users consider upgrading existing Wireless Links such as Trango to add greater capacity, or network coverage.  When considering a wireless vendor, factors generally include:

  • Vendor Track Record
  • Vendor Corporate Stability
  • Product Performance & Reliability
  • Product Support and Service
  • Manufacturing Leadtimes
  • Attractive Vendor Roadmap
  • Product Pricing including all required options

Generally, Microwave links are required to operate unattended for many years in challenging outdoor environments, and therefore reliable and stable products and vendors are paramount in the selection process.

Turbulence in Wireless Vendor Market Space

Amongst many ongoing changes in the market for Microwave Backhaul and Microwave Transmission vendors, there is ongoing consolidation, M&A, and other activities.  Recently, Microwave Vendor Trango Networks ceased trading and customers have reported that there is no longer supply of product, spares or support.

According to some former Trango customers in February 2019,

“Trango Systems has ceased trading trading and no longer or supporting existing installed links. We are therefore forced to find alternative suppliers”

Therefore many former Trango customers are looking for dependable alternative suppliers for Microwave and Radio links

CableFree FOR3 Full Outdoor 1024QAM Microwave Link - Upgrade Dragonwave
Full Outdoor 1024QAM Microwave Link from CableFree

Upgrade to Latest Microwave Technology for Higher Capacities

Some vendors are fully shipping products today with 1024QAM, XPIC, and upgrades to 2048QAM, XPIC, 10Gbps MMW (Millimeter Wave), which are features above and beyond those achieved by many in the market today.  Customers can upgrade today and achieve higher capacity, longer range, reach and availability, at low Total Cost of Ownership compared to competing options.

Future Roadmap for Microwave Upgrades

In addition to today’s products, an impressive roadmap ensures access to higher speed links and features in future products also.   Consideration is worthwhile into:

  • Vendor roadmaps to higher capacity links with microwave up to 4Gbps or more per link existing today.
  • Upgrading to E-Band MMW for shorter links especially in congested city environments
  • Using E-band Millimeter Wave for short links to free-up existing microwave spectrum, relief of spectral congestion and re-using valuable microwave spectrum for longer links where required

For More Information on Microwave Upgrades:

For more information on upgrading your Microwave Radio Network, Please Contact Us

Sub 6 Unlicensed & Licensed

What does Sub 6GHz Licensed and Unlicensed mean?

Several vendors and operators use this term: Find out what “Sub 6” means in practice.

Sub 6GHz Unlicensed & Licensed Links
Sub 6GHz Unlicensed & Licensed Links

What is Sub 6 ?

“Sub 6” means frequencies below 6GHz.   Though frequencies from 1GHz up to 6GHz are still classified as microwave frequencies, they are often referred to “radio links”, “microwave links”, “microwave radio links” with these terms used interchangeably.

Why Consider Sub 6GHz?

Typically links below 6GHz are used for longer point-to-point links, or point-to-multipoint links for last-mile access to customers.  Frequencies below 6GHz do not suffer significant rain fade.  In addition, these lower frequencies can be used for Non-Line-of-Sight Links, in cases where there is no direct Line of Sight between the locations that require connection.  The radio propagation characteristics of lower-frequency bands make them ideal for urban areas where radio signals may reflect from buildings and other man-made objects, and can – within limitations – penetrate walls, brickwork and concrete structures.

What does Unlicensed and Licensed mean?

The term Unlicensed in radio technology includes commonly used bands which can be used in many countries without need for a frequency license, such as 2.4GHz and 5.x GHz bands including 5.2GHz, 5.4GHz and 5.8GHz.  Please note that in a few countries these frequencies still require licenses, or are not usable by private users.
Unlicensed frequencies have the benefit of not requiring a license to operate (typically, licenses have an annual fee, and are issued by a national regulator or state owned telecom operator).  However, unlicensed links can be interfered with by other users, which can cause reduced throughput or complete link outage.  Such interference is generally heavier in high density population areas and cities, where 100’s or 1000’s of radios may be competing for the same spectrum in a given region.

Conversely, licensed operation means that the equipment user has to obtain a frequency license before using the band.  This can be available on a per-link basis, in which case the regulator allocates specific frequencies for a particular link, holding a central database of all links, or in the case of mobile operator networks, a country-wide license within which the operator self-coordinates the allocation of frequencies and coverage.
The lack of predictability in unlicensed bands is the main reason that operators prefer licensed bands for operation, despite the additional costs of licenses required to operate.

Single Carrier and OFDM Modulation

In the “Sub-6” bands 1-6GHz, a range of Single Carrier, OFDM and OFDM-A technology solutions are available.  OFDM and OFDM-A use multiple subcarriers, and can use the properties of this modulation to overcome multipath fading and reflections from hard surfaces present in dense city areas.  Conversely, Single Carrier radios use dense modulation with high symbol rates on a single radio carrier.  This can give high spectral efficiency and data rates, but limited ability to cope with reflected signals, and hence worse performance in non-LOS situations.

Line of Sight, Non-Line-of-Sight, Near-Line-of-Sight and Radio Propagation

OFDM modulation is generally used in Sub-6 radios and is more suitable to rapidly fading and reflected signals, hence for mobility and non-line-of-sight (non-LOS, NLOS, Near-LOS, nLOS) applications.  Generally, the lower the frequency band, the better non-LOS characteristics it has, improving range and in-building coverage and penetration through windows, walls, brickwork and stone.

4G & 5G Mobile and Fixed Networks

4G 5G Wireless Network Sub-6GHz
4G & 5G Wireless Networks operate in Sub-6GHz bands

Both 4G and 5G technologies defined by the 3GPP use OFDM and OFDM-A technology in the sub-6GHz bands to deliver high speed fixed and mobile data services.  These classify as “sub 6” but are rarely referred to as such.  MIMO (Multiple Input, Multiple Output) technology is added on top of OFDM to increase throughput still higher.  More recently, 5G includes “millimeter wave” bands above 20GHz to add still higher speed services and overcome congestion in lower frequency bands.  It is envisaged that users could roam seamlessly between regions with “Sub 6” and “millimeter wave” coverage with suitable handsets or terminal devices.

Managing the Finite Spectrum Available in 1-6GHz

An obvious downside of Sub-6GHz is the limited spectrum available.  There is just 5GHz of spectrum available between 1-6GHz which has to be allocated between multiple applications for Telecom Operators, Government and Private networks, utilising signals that can travel 10-50km or more and therefore potentially interfering with each other if inadequately managed.  Though most applications are terrestrial, the bands include space for ground-satellite services which again have to avoid interference.  Increasingly, frequency regulation is a global issue with international roaming, and huge spectrum demands and pressure on spectrum from Mobile Network Operators who face ever increasing demands for mobile data users worldwide.  To meet this demand, spectrum is continually re-farmed and re-allocated between older 2G and 3G services to 4G and 5G services which are capable of delivering higher capacity services.  Legacy frequency allocations to Government and Military applications are often released for lease to such operators also.

For more information

Please Contact Us


Split Mount Radio Microwave Links

Split Mount Radio (IDU+ODU)

A Split Mount Microwave Radio consisted of Indoor plus Outdoor components – specifically Indoor Unit (IDU) and Outdoor Unit (ODU)

Split Mount Microwave Radios offer up to 500 Mbps and 1Gbps Full Duplex payload  and higher up to 6Gbps or more, in 4-42GHz licensed frequency bands.

Indoor Unit (IDU)

CableFree HCR Indoor Unit (IDU) Split Mount Radio
CableFree HCR Indoor Unit (IDU)

A Typical Split Mount Radio consists of a 19″ Rack Mount Indoor Unit which is mounted in a rack, cabinet, comms room, or even roof-mount shelter as possible locations.

Outdoor Unit (ODU)

CableFree Microwave Link ODU using 30cm antenna Split Mount Radio
CableFree Microwave Link Outdoor Unit (ODU) with using 30cm antenna mounted on a pole

The Outdoor Unit (ODU) is typically mounted directly to the Microwave Antenna on a rooftop or tower location, which enables clear Line of Sight (LOS) between both ends of the Microwave link.

For most bands above 6GHz the ODU has a waveguide interface which enables efficient, low-loss connection directly to the antenna.  For lower bands below 6GHz, commonly a coaxial cable is used between the ODU and the antenna.

In certain cases, the ODU can be remote mounted from the antenna, and a waveguide used to connect between them

Comparison with Full Outdoor Radios

A split mount radio is considered a “traditional” design and older radios always feature this.  The Indoor Unit has all the network interfaces and processing in the easy-access indoor location at the foot the tower or building.  Full Outdoor Radios by contrast have all the active items including the modem and user network interfaces inside the rooftop radio element.  This saves on space, materials, installation time and cost.  A downside is that in the event of any failure, a tower climb is almost always needed to rectify any fault, which may be impossible in rough weather, or require permits or have access limitations to reach

Distances and Range Capability of Split Mount Radios

Using suitable antennas and sites, ultra-long-distance links exceeding 100km can be achieved.   Distances depend on:

  • Frequency band
  • Regional Rainfall
  • Required throughput (Mbps)
  • Desired Availability (%)
  • Antenna size (gain)

For Further Information

For more information on Full Outdoor Radios and Microwave Networks please Contact Us


Microwave Waveguide Flange

Introduction to Microwave Waveguide Flanges

A waveguide flange is a connector for joining sections of waveguide, and is essentially the same as a pipe flange—a waveguide, in the context of this article, being a hollow metal conduit for microwave energy. The connecting face of the flange is either square, circular or (particularly for large or reduced-height rectangular waveguides), rectangular. The connection between a pair of flanges is usually made with four or more bolts, though alternative mechanisms, such as a threaded collar, may be used where there is a need for rapid assembly and disassembly. Dowel pins are sometimes used in addition to bolts, to ensure accurate alignment, particularly for very small waveguides where higher accuracy is required for higher frequencies.

Key features of a waveguide join are; whether or not it is air-tight, allowing the waveguide to be pressurized, and whether it is a contact or a choke connection. This leads to three sorts of flange for each size of rectangular waveguide.

For rectangular waveguides there exist a number of competing standard flanges which are not entirely mutually compatible. Standard flange designs also exist for double-ridge, reduced-height, square and circular waveguides.

Microwave Waveguide Flange IEC EIA
EIA and IEC Microwave Waveguide Flange versions

Unpressurised and Pressurised Waveguide Flanges

The atmosphere within waveguide assemblies is often pressurized, either to prevent the ingress of moisture, or to raise the breakdown voltage in the guide and hence increase the power that it can carry. Pressurization requires that all joints in the waveguide be airtight. This is usually achieved by means of a rubber O-ring seated in a groove in the face of at least one of flanges forming each join. Gasket, gasket/cover or pressurizable flanges (such as that on the right of figure 2), are identifiable by the single circular groove which accommodates the O-ring. It is only necessary for one of the flanges in each pressurizable connection to be of this type; the other may have a plain flat face (like that in figure 1). This ungrooved type is known as a cover, plain or unpressurizable flange.

It is also possible to form air-tight seal between a pair of otherwise unpressurizable flanges using a flat gasket made out of a special electrically conductive elastomer. Two plain cover flanges may be mated without such a gasket, but the connection is then not pressurizable.

Electrical continuity

Electric current flows on the inside surface of the waveguides, and must cross the join between them if microwave power is to pass through the connection without reflection or loss.

Microwave Flange Standards


International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard IEC 60154 describes flanges for square and circular waveguides, as well as for what it refers to as flat, medium-flat, and ordinary rectangular guides.  IEC flanges are identified by an alphanumeric code consisting of; the letter U, P or C for Unpressurizable (plain cover), Pressurizable (with a gasket groove) and Choke (with both choke gasket grooves); a second letter, indicating the shape and other details of the flange and finally the IEC identifier for the waveguide. For standard rectangular waveguide the second letter is A to E, where A and C are round flanges, B is square and D and E are rectangular. So for example UBR220 is a square plain cover flange for R220 waveguide (that is, for WG20, WR42), PDR84 is a rectangular gasket flange for R84 waveguide (WG15, WR112) and CAR70 is a round choke flange for R70 waveguide (WG14, WR137).


MIL-DTL-3922 is a United States Military Standard giving detailed descriptions of choke, gasket/cover and cover flanges for rectangular waveguide. MIL_DTL-39000/3 describes flanges for double-ridge waveguide, and formerly also for single-ridge guide.  MIL-Spec flanges have designations of the form UG-xxxx/U where the x’s represent a variable-length catalogue number, not in itself containing any information about the flange.


The Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) is the body that defined the WR designations for standard rectangular waveguides. EIA flanges are designated CMR (for Connector, Miniature, Rectangular waveguide) or CPR (Connector, Pressurizable, Rectangular waveguide) followed by the EIA number (WR number) for the relevant waveguide. So for example, CPR112 is a gasket flange for waveguide WR112 (WG15).


The Radio Components Standardization Committee (RCSC) is the body that originated the WG designations for standard rectangular waveguides. It also defined standard choke and cover flanges with identifiers of the form 5985-99-xxx-xxxx where the x’s represent a catalogue number, not in itself containing any information about the flange.

What is a Waveguide?

A waveguide is an electromagnetic feed line that is used for high frequency signals. Waveguides conduct microwave energy at lower loss than coaxial cables and are used in microwave communications, radars and other high frequency applications.

The waveguide must have a certain minimum cross section, relative to the wavelength of the signal to function properly. If wavelength of the signal is too long (Frequency is too low) when compared to the cross section of the waveguide, the electromagnetic fields cannot propagate. The lowest frequency range at which a waveguide will operate is where the cross section is large enough to fit one complete wavelength of the signal.

For Further Information

For More Information on Microwave Planning, Please Contact Us

V-Band 60GHz Millimeter Wave MMW Technology

Multi-Gigabit Links using V-Band 60GHz Millimeter Wave MMW Technology

So-called “V-Band” refers to high frequency microwave signals in the Millimeter Wave radio bands which enable high capacity wireless communications.  The band is useful for moderate distances up to around 1km with clear “line of sight”, and for short-range mobile devices.  In many countries, V-band is “Unlicensed” (license free) which encourages widespread use.

What is 60GHz V-band technology?

The V band (“vee-band”) is a standard designation by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) for a band of frequencies in the microwave portion of the electromagnetic spectrum ranging from 40 to 75 gigahertz (GHz).The V band is not heavily used, except for millimeter wave radar research and other kinds of scientific research. It should not be confused with the 600–1000 MHz range of Band-V (band-five) of the UHF frequency range.

CableFree V-Band 60GHz MMW Link
CableFree V-Band 60GHz MMW Link with High Gain parabolic antenna

The V band is also used for high capacity terrestrial millimeter wave communications systems. In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission has allocated the frequency band from 57 to 71 GHz for unlicensed wireless systems. These systems are primarily used for high capacity, short distance (less than 1 mile) communications. In addition, frequencies at 70, 80, and 90 GHz have been allocated as “lightly licensed” bands for multi-gigabit wireless communications. All communications links in the V band require unobstructed line of sight between the transmit and receive point, and rain fade must be taken into account when performing link budget analysis.

Applications for 60GHz V-band

Very short range Wi-Fi

The Wi-Fi standard IEEE 802.11ad utilizes the 60 GHz (EHF microwave) spectrum with data transfer rates of up to 7 Gbit/s for very short ranges of up to 10 metres (33 ft).  Also the newer IEEE 802.11ay uses the same band.  Where 802.11ad uses a maximum of 2.16 GHz bandwidth, 802.11ay bonds four of those channels together for a maximum bandwidth of 8.64 GHz. MIMO is also added with a maximum of 4 streams. The link-rate per stream is 44Gbit/s, with four streams this goes up to 176Gbit/s. Higher order modulation is also added, probably up to 256-QAM.

Mobile backhaul

As mobile operators need more and more bandwidth, they are turning to new frequency bands to lower their wireless backhaul costs. Both license-exempt V band spectrum (57-71 GHz) and E band spectrum (71-76 GHz, 81-86 GHz and 92-95 GHz) have clear technological and economic advantages. The 27 GHz allocated in these bands allows multi-Gigabit per second capacities far exceeding the 6-38 GHz bandwidth-limited frequencies.

In the V band and E band spectrum, wireless systems can utilize the significantly larger allocated spectrum and channels to deliver multi-Gigabit data rates. This enables a simple, robust, and low cost modem and radio design. Thus, V-Band and E-Band, millimeter-wave wireless systems provide significant cost advantages over 6-38 GHz wireless systems – allowing scaling capacity to Gigabit capacities, without additional radio equipment and licensing fees.

Wireless broadband

Internet service providers are looking for ways to expand gigabit high-speed services to their customers. These can be achieved through fiber to the premises broadband network architecture, or a more affordable alternative using fixed wireless in the last mile in combination with the fiber networks in the middle mile in order to reduce the costs of trenching fiber optic cables to the users. In the United States, V band is unlicensed. This makes V band an appealing choice to be used as fixed wireless access for gigabit services to connect to homes and businesses.

Satellite constellations

As of March 2017, several US companies—Boeing, SpaceX, OneWeb, Telesat, O3b Networks and Theia Holdings—have each filed with the US regulatory authorities “plans to field constellations of V-band satellites in non-geosynchronous orbits to provide communications services,” an electromagnetic spectrum that had not previously been “heavily employed for commercial communications services.”

V-Band Regulations and Licensing

In many countries, V-band is “Unlicensed” (license free) which encourages widespread use.  A few countries retain 60GHz for licensed or defence applications.  The specific frequencies which are allowed to be used can vary between different countries.

For More Information on V-Band Millimeter Wave

For more information on V-Band MMW, Please Contact Us

Point to Point Microwave Link

Wireless Point-to-Point Microwave Bridge Links

Microwave Point to Point can be tailored to suit the needs and requirements of all applications

CableFree FOR3 Point to Point Microwave P2P PTP Installed in the Middle East
CableFree FOR3 Microwave P2P link Installed in the Middle East

Point to Point links are transparent, acting as an extension of the Ethernet backbone or segment. Licensed Microwave is fully compatible with the Ethernet standard, and supports all Ethernet functionality and applications.

Point to Point Microwave has been the connectivity choice for Telecom carriers, corporate organisations and Government authorities for many of years. Point to Point Radio offers high speeds, high availability over large connection distances, it can be relied upon to carry voice and data traffic in a number of bandwidth-intensive applications, such as:

  • Connecting locations that are unavailable or in poor Broadband areas
  • Private data Networks (WANs, LANs, etc.)
  • Utility Networks (Railways, Pipelines, etc.)
  • Last Mile access for Corporate, SMEs and Local Government
  • Connecting buildings and facilities over large distances

Microwave P2P – Ideal replacement for Fibre Optics and Leased Lines

CableFree Microwave Link using 30cm antenna benefits from ACM giving longer reach and higher availability
CableFree Microwave Link using 30cm antenna benefits from ACM giving longer reach and higher availability

Point to point wireless is the ideal alternative for business communication between two buildings or sites where wired connection is either impossible, costly or impractical. Point to point Ethernet bridge link facilitates a wireless data connection between two or more networks or buildings across distances up to 100 Kilometres and at speeds up to 1Gbps.

Point to point wireless links are an excellent alternative to fibre optics and leased lines, providing businesses with fibre-like speeds for high-speed data, voice and video transfer between business locations.

Asking an expert team to assist with your point to point wireless requirement will ensure you get a well-designed Microwave Link solution and expertise to help you and your business to benefit from high-capacity, low-latency, long distance wireless data transfer. Quality design, installation and support teams are always on-hand to ensure that your project is delivered on time and to the highest standards.

Long Distance Point to Point WiFi

WiFi is sometimes used for outdoor links – with directional antennas – despite the WiFi radio protocol not being optimised for long distance links.  Instead, customised airside protocols on dedicated outdoor radios are far better for security, throughput and link stability.

Point to Point Ethernet bridge

CableFree Microwave Point to Point Radio Links P2P PTP
CableFree Microwave Point to Point Radio Links

A point to point Ethernet bridge link can benefit your business through the elimination of leasing lines or subscription based systems with no loss in performance. Providing highly reliable connections, point to point wireless offers a far lower total cost of ownership and has the versatility of deployment within rural, metropolitan and residential environments.

Whether you are looking to achieve high-speed business networking or to provide wireless backhaul for CCTV connectivity, point to point bridges are the best option.

Where line-of-sight (LOS) exists between two points, point to point bridge pairs can be set-up and installed with the minimum of disruption to your business and can usually be completed within a single day. The ease of install and the resilience to harsh weather conditions make point to point bridge links a viable fibre alternative.

Operating in both licensed and unlicensed spectrums, our point to point solutions ensure that your business has the network uptime and performance for mission-critical data transfer – our links offer 99.999% uptime.

Broadcasting, construction or military environments often require temporary wireless connections. The simplicity of point to point WiFi makes it the perfect solution where temporary wireless connection is required between two points.

Licensed or Unlicensed Point to Point Microwave Links

When selecting the correct point to point wireless link for your business, there are a number of important decisions to be made to ensure that the final outcome meets the initial expectations. Point to point microwave links can be either licenced or unlicensed, both of which have a specific set of capabilities, advantages and disadvantages, the main one being their relative susceptibility to interference-free operation.

For businesses seeking a wireless backhaul which will serve as a direct replacement for leased lines, licensed microwave links – which operate within the ‘licensed’ 4-42GHz bands, – will provide superior bandwidth availability, speed and the interference protection necessary.

Although offering no guaranteed interference protection, unlicensed microwave links which operate in the ‘unlicensed’ frequency bands, either typically in 2.4 and 5GHz bands, in some regions 17GHz and 24GHz, and 58GHz/60GHz (V-band), can provide a more cost effective option as they eliminate any additional costs and can be rapidly deployed.

For Further Information

For More Information on Microwave Planning, Please Contact Us

Microwave Waveguide Sizes & Dimensions

Microwave Waveguide Sizes

Microwave Waveguide
Microwave Waveguide

Due to high frequencies used, Waveguides rather than RF coaxial cables are used to connect Microwave Radios, Antennas and Couplers.  Matched and correct size and dimension of Waveguide is essential for all items in the Microwave link.

What is a Waveguide?

A waveguide is an electromagnetic feed line that is used for high frequency signals. Waveguides conduct microwave energy at lower loss than coaxial cables and are used in microwave communications, radars and other high frequency applications.

The waveguide must have a certain minimum cross section, relative to the wavelength of the signal to function properly. If wavelength of the signal is too long (Frequency is too low) when compared to the cross section of the waveguide, the electromagnetic fields cannot propagate. The lowest frequency range at which a waveguide will operate is where the cross section is large enough to fit one complete wavelength of the signal.

Rectangular, Circular and Double Rigid

Geometrically speaking there are three types of waveguides – Rectangular Waveguides, Double Rigid Waveguides and Circular Waveguides. The tables below will give you details on the various waveguide sizes and their properties.

Rectangular Waveguide Sizes

Waveguide name Recommended frequency Cutoff frequency
lowest order mode
Cutoff frequency
next mode
Inner dimensions of waveguide opening
EIA RCSC * IEC A inch[mm] B inch[mm]
WR2300 WG0.0 R3 0.32 to 0.45 GHz 0.257 GHz 0.513 GHz 23 [584.2] 11.5 [292.1]
WR2100 WG0 R4 0.35 to 0.50 GHz 0.281 GHz 0.562 GHz 21 [533.4] 10.5 [266.7]
WR1800 WG1 R5 0.45 to 0.63 GHz 0.328 GHz 0.656 GHz 18 [457.2] 9 [228.6]
WR1500 WG2 R6 0.50 to 0.75 GHz 0.393 GHz 0.787 GHz 15 [381] 7.5 [190.5]
WR1150 WG3 R8 0.63 to 0.97 GHz 0.513 GHz 1.026 GHz 11.5 [292.1] 5.75 [146.05]
WR975 WG4 R9 0.75 to 1.15 GHz 0.605 GHz 1.211 GHz 9.75 [247.65] 4.875 [123.825]
WR770 WG5 R12 0.97 to 1.45 GHz 0.766 GHz 1.533 GHz 7.7 [195.58] 3.85 [97.79]
WR650 WG6 R14 1.15 to 1.72 GHz 0.908 GHz 1.816 GHz 6.5 [165.1] 3.25 [82.55]
WR510 WG7 R18 1.45 to 2.20 GHz 1.157 GHz 2.314 GHz 5.1 [129.54] 2.55 [64.77]
WR430 WG8 R22 1.72 to 2.60 GHz 1.372 GHz 2.745 GHz 4.3 [109.22] 2.15 [54.61]
WG9 2.20 to 3.30 GHz 1.686 GHz 3.372 GHz 3.5 [88.9] 1.75 [44.45]
WR340 WG9A R26 2.20 to 3.30 GHz 1.736 GHz 3.471 GHz 3.4 [86.36] 1.7 [43.18]
WR4284 WG10 R32 2.60 to 3.95 GHz 2.078 GHz 4.156 GHz 2.84 [72.136] 1.34 [34.036]
WG11 3.30 to 4.90 GHz 2.488 GHz 4.976 GHz 2.372 [60.2488] 1.122 [28.4988]
WR229 WG11A R40 3.30 to 4.90 GHz 2.577 GHz 5.154 GHz 2.29 [58.166] 1.145 [29.083]
WR187 WG12 R48 3.95 to 5.85 GHz 3.153 GHz 6.305 GHz 1.872 [47.5488] 0.872 [22.1488]
WR159 WG13 R58 4.90 to 7.05 GHz 3.712 GHz 7.423 GHz 1.59 [40.386] 0.795 [20.193]
WR137 WG14 R70 5.85 to 8.20 GHz 4.301 GHz 8.603 GHz 1.372 [34.8488] 0.622 [15.7988
WR112 WG15 R84 7.05 to 10 GHz 5.26 GHz 10.52 GHz 1.122 [28.4988] 0.497 [12.6238]
WR102 7.00 to 11 GHz 5.786 GHz 11.571 GHz 1.02 [25.908] 0.51 [12.954]
WR90 WG16 R100 8.20 to 12.40 GHz 6.557 GHz 13.114 GHz 0.9 [22.86] 0.4 [10.16]
WR75 WG17 R120 10.00 to 15 GHz 7.869 GHz 15.737 GHz 0.75 [19.05] 0.375 [9.525]
WR62 WG18 R140 12.40 to 18 GHz 9.488 GHz 18.976 GHz 0.622 [15.7988] 0.311 [7.8994]
WR51 WG19 R180 15.00 to 22 GHz 11.572 GHz 23.143 GHz 0.51 [12.954] 0.255 [6.477]
WR42 WG20 R220 18.00 to 26.50 GHz 14.051 GHz 28.102 GHz 0.42 [10.668] 0.17 [4.318]
WR34 WG21 R260 22.00 to 33 GHz 17.357 GHz 34.715 GHz 0.34 [8.636] 0.17 [4.318]
WR28 WG22 R320 26.50 to 40 GHz 21.077 GHz 42.154 GHz 0.28 [7.112] 0.14 [3.556]
WR22 WG23 R400 33.00 to 50 GHz 26.346 GHz 52.692 GHz 0.224 [5.6896] 0.112 [2.8448]
WR19 WG24 R500 40.00 to 60 GHz 31.391 GHz 62.782 GHz 0.188 [4.7752] 0.094 [2.3876]
WR15 WG25 R620 50.00 to 75 GHz 39.875 GHz 79.75 GHz 0.148 [3.7592] 0.074 [1.8796]
WR12 WG26 R740 60 to 90 GHz 48.373 GHz 96.746 GHz 0.122 [3.0988] 0.061 [1.5494]
WR10 WG27 R900 75 to 110 GHz 59.015 GHz 118.03 GHz 0.1 [2.54] 0.05 [1.27]
WR8 WG28 R1200 90 to 140 GHz 73.768 GHz 147.536 GHz 0.08 [2.032] 0.04 [1.016]
WR6 WG29 R1400 110 to 170 GHz 90.791 GHz 181.583 GHz 0.065 [1.651] 0.0325 [0.8255]
WR7 WG29 R1400 110 to 170 GHz 90.791 GHz 181.583 GHz 0.065 [1.651] 0.0325 [0.8255]
WR5 WG30 R1800 140 to 220 GHz 115.714 GHz 231.429 GHz 0.051 [1.2954] 0.0255 [0.6477]
WR4 WG31 R2200 172 to 260 GHz 137.243 GHz 274.485 GHz 0.043 [1.0922] 0.0215 [0.5461]
WR3 WG32 R2600 220 to 330 GHz 173.571 GHz 347.143 GHz 0.034 [0.8636] 0.017 [0.4318]


  • The “WR” designation stands for Rectangular Waveguides
  • The Number that follows “WR” is the width of the waveguide opening in mils, divided by 10. For Example WR-650 means a waveguide whose cross section width is 6500 mils.
  • The waveguide width determines the lower cutoff frequency and is equal (ideally) to ½ wavelength of the lower cutoff frequency.

Double-ridge waveguides are rectangular wagevuides with two ridges protruding parallel to the short wall. This increases the E-Field in the waveguide improving performance.

Double Ridge Waveguide Sizes

(a)=aluminum, (b)=brass, (c)=copper, (s)=silver
fL – fU*
WR U.S. Mil.
__ /U
WR975 RG204 (a) 0.75-1.12 0.605 9.750 4.875
WR770 RG205 (a) 0.96-1.45 0.766 7.700 3.850
WR650 RG69 (b)
RG103 (a)
WG6 1.12-1.70 0.908 6.500 3.250
WR510 1.45-2.20 1.157 5.100 2.550
WR430 RG104 (b)
RG105 (a)
WG8 1.70-2.60 1.372 4.300 2.150
WR340  RG112 (b)
RG113 (a)
WG9A 2.20-3.30 1.736 3.400 1.700
WR284 RG48 (b)
RG75 (a)
WG10 2.60-3.95 2.078 2.840 1.340
WR229  RG340 (c)
RG341 (a)
WG11A R40 3.30-4.90 2.577 2.290 1.145
WR187 RG49 (b)
RG95 (a)
WG12 R48 3.95-5.85- 3.152 1.872 0.872
WR159  RG343 (c)
RG344 (a)
WG13 R58 4.90-7.05 3.712 1.590 0.795
WR137 RG50 (b)
RG106 (a)
WG14 R70 5.850-8.200 4.301 1.372 0.622
WR112 RG51 (b)
RG68 (a)
WG15 R84 7.050-10.000 5.260 1.122 0.497
WR90 RG52 (b)
RG67 (a)
WG16 R100 8.20-12.40 6.56 0.900 0.400
WR75  RG346 (c)
RG347 (a)
WG17 10.0-15.0 7.87 0.750 0.375
WR62 RG91 (b)
RG349 (a)
WG18 12.40-18.00 9.49 0.622 0.311
WR51  RG352 (c)
RG351 (a)
WG19 15.00-22.00 11.6 0.510 0.255
WR42 RG53 (b)
RG121 (a)
WG20 18.00-26.5 14.1 0.420 0.170
WR34 RG354 (c) 20.0-33.0 17.4 0.340 0.170
WR28 RG96 (s)
RG271 (c)
WG22 26.50-40.00 21.1 0.280 0.140
WR22 RG97 (s) WG23 33.00-50.00 26.4 0.224 0.112
WR19 WG24 40.00-60.00 31.4 0.188 0.0940
WR15 RG98 (s) WG25 50.00-75.00 39.9 0.148 0.0740
WR12 RG99 (s) WG26 60.00-90.00 48.4 0.122 0.0610
WR10 WG27 75.00-110.0 59.0 0.100 0.0500
WR8 RG138 (s) WG28 90.00-140.0 73.8 0.0800 0.0400
WR7 RG136 (s) 110.0-170.0 90.8 0.0650 0.0325
WR4 RG137 170.0-260.0 137 0.0430 0.0215
WR3 RG139 (s) 220.0-325.0 174 0.0340 0.0170


Circular Waveguide Sizes

FrequencyBand Frequency Range Circular WaveguideDiameter, Inches (mm) Cover Flange (Brass)MIL-F- 3922 UG Flange Type
X LOW 8.2-9.97 1.094 (27.79) 53-001 UG-39/U Square
MID 8.5-11.6 0.938 (23.83)
HIGH 9.97-12.4 0.797 (20.24)
Ku LOW 12.4-15.9 0.688 (17.48) 53-005 UG-1666/U Square
MID 13.4-18.0 0.594 (15.08)
HIGH 15.9-18.0 0.500 (12.70)
K LOW 17.5-20.5 0.455 (11.56) 54-001 UG-595/U Square
MID 20-24.5 0.396 (10.06)
HIGH 24-26.5 0.328 (8.33)
Ka LOW 26.5-33 0.315 (8.00) 54-003 UG-595/U Square
MID 33-38.5 0.250 (6.35)
HIGH 38.5-40 0.219 (5.56)
Q LOW 33-38.5 0.250 (6.35) 67B-006 UG-383/U Round
MID 38.5-43 0.219 (5.56)
HIGH 43-50 0.188 (4.78)
U LOW 40-43 0.210 (5.33) 67B-007 UG-383/U-M Round
MID 43-50 0.188 (4.78)
HIGH 50-60 0.165 (4.19)
V LOW 50-58 0.165 (4.19) 67B-008 UG-385/U Round
MID 58-68 0.141 (3.58)
HIGH 68-75 0.125 (3.18)
E LOW 60-66 0.136 (3.45) 67B-009 UG-387/U Round
MID 66-82 0.125 (3.18)
HIGH 82-90 0.094 (2.39)
W LOW 75-88 0.112 (2.84) 67B-010 UG-387/U-M Round
HIGH 88-110 0.094 (2.39)
F LOW 90-115 0.089 (2.26) -UG-387/U-M Round
HIGH 115-140 0.075 (1.91)
D LOW 110-140 0.073 (1.85) -UG-387/U-M Round
HIGH 140-160 0.059 (1.50)
G LOW 140-180 0.058 (1.47) -UG-387/U-M Round
HIGH 180-220 0.045 (1.14)
170-260 0.049 (1.25) -UG-387/U-M Round
220-325 0.039 (0.99) -UG-387/U-M Round


WR3 | WG32 | R2600 Waveguide

WR3 | WG32 | R2600 Waveguide Sizes

WR3 | WG32 | R2600 Rectangular Waveguide Size

  • EIA Standard (WR):WR3
  • RSCS Standard (British Military):WG32
  • IEC Standard:R2600

WR3 Specifications

  • Recommended Frequency Band:220 to 330 GHz
  • Cutoff Frequency of Lowest Order Mode:173.571 GHz
  • Cutoff Frequency of Upper Mode:347.143 GHz
  • Dimension:0.034 Inches [0.8636 mm] x 0.017 Inches [0.4318 mm]


Microwave Waveguide WR3
Microwave Waveguide

What is a Waveguide?

A waveguide is an electromagnetic feed line that is used for high frequency signals. Waveguides conduct microwave energy at lower loss than coaxial cables and are used in microwave communications, radars and other high frequency applications.

The waveguide must have a certain minimum cross section, relative to the wavelength of the signal to function properly. If wavelength of the signal is too long (Frequency is too low) when compared to the cross section of the waveguide, the electromagnetic fields cannot propagate. The lowest frequency range at which a waveguide will operate is where the cross section is large enough to fit one complete wavelength of the signal.

For Further Information

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WR4 | WG31 | R2200 Waveguide

WR4 | WG31 | R2200 – Rectangular Waveguide Size

WR4 | WG31 | R2200 Waveguide Size

  • EIA Standard:WR4
  • RSCS Standard (British Military):WG31
  • IEC Standard:R2200

WR4 Specifications

  • Recommended Frequency Band:172 to 260 GHz
  • Cutoff Frequency of Lowest Order Mode:137.243 GHz
  • Cutoff Frequency of Upper Mode:274.485 GHz
  • Dimension:0.043 Inches [1.0922 mm] x 0.0215 Inches [0.5461 mm]


Microwave Waveguide WR2300
Microwave Waveguide

What is a Waveguide?

A waveguide is an electromagnetic feed line that is used for high frequency signals. Waveguides conduct microwave energy at lower loss than coaxial cables and are used in microwave communications, radars and other high frequency applications.

The waveguide must have a certain minimum cross section, relative to the wavelength of the signal to function properly. If wavelength of the signal is too long (Frequency is too low) when compared to the cross section of the waveguide, the electromagnetic fields cannot propagate. The lowest frequency range at which a waveguide will operate is where the cross section is large enough to fit one complete wavelength of the signal.

For Further Information

For More Information on Microwave Planning, Please Contact Us